The Invisible Culture of Situations

The Invisible Culture of Situations

What if national culture isn’t the culprit for a misunderstanding? What if it isn’t gender or role or sexual preference or even age? What if you go to work one day and someone behaves oddly and in an attempt to be a global leader you give that person the benefit of the doubt, but his or her conduct just can’t be explained by culture?

What if someone is just having a bad day, or month, or year?

Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg’s new book, Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience, and Finding Joy addresses the taboo subject of grief, crisis, tragedy and how to react to it in the workplace. It emerged after the sudden passing of her beloved husband, which led her down an unfamiliar road.  It’s “a primer for those who are bereaved, to help them recover and find happiness,” according to the recent Time Magazine cover story.

According to the article, the book gives advice to co-workers and friends on how to support someone facing such adversity. In one example, she proposes not avoiding them and replacing “How are you?” with “How are you today?” Such advice provides tools for another side of invisible culture – crisis, situations and the individual personal way that people chose to deal with adversity.

So the global leadership skills of building context and learning about multiple aspects of a particular situation are relevant. Much like global leadership, understanding the invisible aspects of a particular moment in time may require people to get comfortable with the uncomfortable, familiar with the unfamiliar, and anchored in ambiguity – highly desirable cross-cultural competencies as well.

While culture is traditionally deep and enduring, life is dynamic. The questions to ask may not be about what a culture or person is (personality being the culture of the individual), but more so where people find themselves at a particular moment in time. We are all evolving into our best selves and sometimes the invisible side of things is not just culture, but also situations.

While Option B just hit bookshelves, it is a reminder that truly global leaders are capable of using culture as a tool for decoding diverse behavior, but that culture isn’t a panacea. Developing tools for working with varied people and their varied moments in life, may be the next leadership tool that will allow teams to really thrive through all stages of life.


Happy New Year?

Happy New Year?


A few years ago, after 13 years working with cultural differences, I booked some business meetings in San José, Costa Rica for the first week of December. As the date approached I could read the silent cues that those meetings weren’t going to happen. I called a trusted cultural mentor and asked her what she thought was going on. She chuckled and said…

“Well it’s Christmas time so nobody is really working in December.” My mindset was based in a U.S. framework where the first week of December was a reasonable time to get things done before the New Year. I couldn’t have been more wrong. The reactions I received were similar to the reaction one might have received in the U.S. if they tried to book meetings on Thanksgiving Day.

Thank goodness I checked with a cultural advisor because I could have done what hundreds of my past clients have done which was to judge Ticos (Costa Ricans) negatively. In fact it was I who had set up a situation that was bound to fail.

As we enter the New Year, consider adding to your list: “Shift judgment to curiosity.” Attribution theory suggests we take credit when things go right and blame when things go wrong. When faced with people who are different we often look to “the other” as the source of the problem.

Global Leadership Solution:

  • Clearly identify what success looks like for the organization, its teams and various individuals. Everyone should be clear on what this looks like and they should be aligned (but oh so often are not).
  • Use cultural assessment tools like GlobeSmart or my favorite, Cultural Navigator, to map “the self” (you, your leaders, your teams, your organization) and identify preferences, strength and weaknesses.
  • Use cultural assessment tools to map “the other” to identify preferences, strengths and weaknesses.
  • Do a gap analysis to see where there are potential pit falls.
  • Do a reality check: Are your goals realistic? Are the schedules and bottom lines getting in your way of setting realistic objectives for your teams? Is pushing going to get you there faster or slower.
  • Create a realistic plan that incorporates local knowledge into future strategies.


The real risk in the above story is that I would develop an inaccurate perception of my colleagues that stays with me through my working relationships. I often hear U.S. Americans complain about others based on where they are from or what group to which they belong (“The Indians always do …”; “The latinos are so …”; “The French must…”)  when in fact the problem usually arise from the basic assumption that everyone should be like us and want what we want.

So as the New Year approaches, my gift to you is’s Infographic about how people celebrate the New Year based on national and religious differences.  If you scroll beyond that you will find a list of how to say Happy New Year in different languages to share the celebrations beyond our own familiar groups.

Happy New Year and welcome the year of the monkey.

new year

Afrikaans – S: Gelukkige Nuwejaar
Albanian – S: Gezuar Vitin e Ri
Azerbaijani – S: Yeni iliniz mubarek
Bahasa melayu – S: Selamat tahun baru
Basque – S: Urte berri on
Bengali – S: Shuvo Noboborsho
Bosnian – S: sretna nova godina
Catalan – S: Felic any nou
Cebuano (Philippines) S: Mabungahong Bag-ong Tuig kaninyong tanan
Chinese – P: Chu Shen Tan
Czech – S: Stastny Novy Rok
Danish – Godt Nytar
Dutch – S: Gelukkig Nieuwjaar or Fijne oudejaarsavond
Esperanto – Bonan Novjaron
Estonian – S: Head uut aastat
Filipino – S: Manigong Bagong Taon
Finnish – S: Onnellista Uutta Vuotta
French – S: Bonne annee
Gaelic (Scotland) – S: Bliadhna mhath ur
German – S: Frohes Neues Jahr/Gutes Neues Jahr
Greek – P: kali chronya
Hawaiian – S: Hauoli Makahiki hou
Hebrew – P: Shana Tova
Hungarian – S: Boldog Uj Evet/ Buek
Indonesian (Bahasa) – Selamat Tahun Baru
Irish -S: Athbhliain faoi mhaise dhuit /Bhliain nua sasta
Italian – S: Felice Anno Nuovo or Buon anno
Japanese – P: akemashite omedetou gozaimasu
Korean – P: she heh bokmahn ee bahd euh sae yo
Laotian (Hmong) -P: nyob zoo xyoo tshiab
Latin – S: Felix sit annus novus
Maltese – S: Is Sena it-Tajba
Maori – S: Kia hari te tau hou
Nigerian (Hausa) – S: Barka da sabuwar shekara
Norwegian – S: Godt Nyttar
Polish – S: Szczesliwego Nowego Roku
Portuguese – S: Feliz Ano Novo
Romanian – S: La Multi Ani
Russian – P: s novim godom
Samoan – S: la manuia le Tausaga Fou
Spanish – S: Feliz Ano Nuevo
Swahili – S: Nakutakaia Heri Ya Mwaka Mpya
Swedish – S: Gott Nyttar
Thai – P: saa-wat-dii pi-mai
Turkish – S: Yeliniz Kutlu Olsun Mutlu yillar
Vietnamese – P: Chuc mung nam moi
Urdu – P: nyya saal mubarak
Welsh – S: Blwyddyn newydd dda



Check Your Bias

Check Your Bias



To be humbled is to be illuminated and that is exactly what happened to me in 1991 at the Summer Institute of Intercultural Communications outside of Portland, Oregon. I went with the assumption that because I thought I was not a prejudiced person that I actually wasn’t a prejudiced person. I couldn’t have been more wrong.

During the final case study of a week-long workshop, my job was to present a proposal to two executives – a woman and a man. I prepared thoroughly, I was backed up with research and I presented the materials with the minimum number of ums and hiccups.

It wasn’t until the debrief that I learned that I had focused about 80% of my eye contact and attention on the man across the table all but ignoring the woman who, by the way, was the “CEO” of the company. I don’t know what was more mortifying, that I had the bias or that it was so out of my consciousness.

Self-awareness is viewed as one of the first and essential steps on the path to cultural competence, but there are so few opportunities to have the gift of such illumination presented to us in a safe and supportive learning environment. Too often people who are “called out,” get defensive or aren’t given usable tools and therefore lose the opportunity for awareness and growth.

In her book, Lean In, Sheryl Sandberg references a study conducted by Columbia University Business School and NY University professors, Frank Flynn and Cameron Anderson. The idea behind the study was to test perceptions of both men and women in the workplace. They presented students with a leadership case study that was exactly the same in every way except for the name of the leader was Howard in one and Heidi in the other.

The students were then asked their impressions. To their credit they rated them equally on competence, but on respect their responses varied greatly. Howard was a more desirable colleague while Heidi was seen as selfish and not the type of person people wanted to work for. What they found was that unconscious bias was alive and well. With all things being equal except gender, people responded and judged them differently.

Over the past couple of months I have been working a lot with doctors. As a result I have been speaking with a lot of people about medical professionals. Regardless of the fact that most of the doctors about whom I was speaking were women, it was interesting to hear how often most people used the pronoun “he.”

I took note the first few times, but then started to become fascinated by the fact that it kept happening over and over again. Even people who could be described as feminists, well-traveled, well educated or possessing of open hearts, were making this classic error.

It is reasonable to rationalize such stories as based in history i.e.
“In the past most doctors were men…” but that doesn’t change the fact that we are still operating in a modern world where bias towards groups with shared characteristics is no longer an acceptable or desirable quality.


  1. Recognize that there is a chance you may suffer from unconscious bias.
  2. Partake in assessments that identify your preferences and biases in order to develop self-awareness.
  3. Develop clear vision of what your success looks like and how unconscious bias may be getting in the way of you accomplishing your goals most effectively.
  4. Identify areas where you may be at most risk of expressing your bias – work, home, socializing and via gender, race, national culture, economic culture etc.
  5. Develop specific action-steps to avoid falling into the pitfalls to which most people succumb so that your success is not undermined by your history and natural development.


Finally, if you are not sure just ASK. Becoming competent at not being unconsciously bias requires the right Attitude, Skills and Knowledge. You may not be able to prepare yourself for every different situation, but being a conscious observer with a curious approach can protect even the best intending of people from putting their foot in their mouth.


How are you? The Meaning of Words

“How are you?”
The Meaning of Words

words (1)

In many parts of the world, September is a transition month. Schools start, summer comes to an end, and daily routines resume. The changing season also brings new arrivals from foreign lands who may not be familiar with local greetings. “How was your summer?” or “How are you?” are common questions being heard in office hallways and school entrances, but what do such questions really mean across cultures?

While training a German engineer he once asked me, “Why do Americans ask ‘How are you?’ but then walk away without waiting for the answer?”

Good question.

He also noticed how when he responded to the same question that his counterparts seemed a bit taken aback. He said, “I told one co-worker, ‘I have a headache,’ and got the feeling I had said something wrong.” By answering authentically he was hoping to deepen the relationship, but instead found his approach was having the exact opposite affect.

Another time someone asked how his weekend was and he started to talk about how his in-laws were in town and therefore it was a bit stressful. He said his co-workers looked surprised at his response, seemed to laugh nervously and went on their way.

Such moments are examples of how regardless of the fact that English may be someone’s native language, that doesn’t mean people are using their words impeccably from the perspective of a newcomer who speaks English as a second language. To the engineer, “How are you?” really meant, “I want to know how you are doing.” Here in the U.S. it simply means, “Hi.”

It was crazy to him that a person could have just found out they had a disease, had just tripped and fallen or had a fight with a loved one and regardless, “Fine thank you, how are you,” is still the response that is given and expected.

The engineer interpreted this as a sign of inauthenticity. He took his experiences one step further and then generalized to all U.S. Americans, as if an entire country could truly be inauthentic. I clarified that it was a matter of interpretation and not mal-intent. He reluctantly accepted this, but still scratched his head.

“So how do you know when someone really wants to know how you are doing?” He asked.

Answer: They will ask a follow-up question that is usually more specific. The below example between James and Peter illustrates this.

James: “How are you?”

Peter:  “Fine thanks, how are you?”

James: “I’m fine. What did you do this weekend?”

And so the conversation continues versus simply drops off as a greeting like “Hi,” would. There are plenty of examples that we have discussed in past posts where the meaning of words may be a matter of cultural interpretation. For example:

“How are you?” can really mean “Hi.”

“Let’s do lunch!” can really mean “Nice to meet you.”

“Yes,” can really mean “Maybe.”

“Hai,” a common response word used in Japan, literally translates into “Yes,” but more likely means: “I hear you” or “I understand.” More than one U.S. American negotiator has fallen into the trap of thinking a deal was being made when it was simply being heard.  According to a chat on it can even mean a variety of things including: I have an opinion, I’m here, Sorry, Pardon, What, OK then, or Well.

So with the arrival of new parents and students at schools, new co-workers in the office and a new season around the corner, remember that if you don’t get the expected response you are looking for, literal translations of words may not translate into meaning. Digging deeper into intent based on culture may give a more accurate picture than just the words themselves.

And in the end, hopefully everything will be fine, thank you.


Meet the Crew: Prachi Mehrotra

 The Invisible Culture of an Indian American

india america flag

I would like to introduce Prachi Mehrotra who works here at Invisible Culture. Since she was raised by Indian parents here in the United States, she walks the line between many worlds – traditional India, the United States, tech culture and generational culture (including a boss who remembers when cassettes were all the rage). I am delighted that she has been generous enough to share her experiences here as a guest blogger, so I look forward to hosting her stories from time to time. Hopefully by hearing about what it is like to straddle two (if not more) cultural worlds, we can all gain insights into this classic U.S. American experience that isn’t necessarily shared by all. Thank you Prachi…

Hi, my name is Prachi Mehrotra and I am currently a sophomore at studying at New York University. Over the past few months, I have been working for Invisible Culture under the training and guidance of Katherine. Through my experiences thus far with Invisible Culture, I have learned a lot about the differences, as well as the intersections, among cultures across the world. As a first generation Indian American, I have learned a lot about the importance of accepting different cultures and understanding how they may differ from my own.

My mother tells me a story that when I was younger and entering pre-school I didn’t know the word for water in English, only Hindi. Before that, my family primarily spoke Hindi at home. Though I knew English, I didn’t go to it as my first language. When I got to school, where no one spoke Hindi, I kept asking for “pani,” and the teachers couldn’t figure out what I was asking for. They finally figured it out with the help of my mom, but it definitely caused some problems at first.

At three years old, I didn’t understand that language could be a barrier between cultures. Though in the business world and beyond, we look to translations to bypass this problem, language is a very obvious and important part of any culture that sometimes we do not consider enough.

This is just one example of many of how invisible culture was present in my life. Growing up as in Indian in America has taught me a lot about these two distinct cultures, where they overlap, and how together they define me. Through my posts, I will explore and uncover more about my experiences and understanding of how these two cultures are different and how they work together.


Global Leadership Insights

The Invisible Culture of Parenting

team vs individual

A French mother and a U.S. American mother are sitting in the playground parallel to one another. They both send their children off to play and they both give their children love when they come back crying after taking a fall. This is where their paths and those of their children go in different directions.

The French woman gives her child a kiss and some comfort and then scolds the child saying, “I told you to be careful. Now stay close to me and don’t get hurt.” The American mother gives a kiss and some comfort and then says, “Go on. Have fun. You can do it.”

This story can be found in the work of the French Psychoanalyst Pascal Baudry who discusses fundamental differences in French and U.S. American cultures from a psychoanalytic perspective. He says this example reveals a lot about how we develop our values. The French mother encourages group membership and closeness by resolving the problem with the solution of staying closer and not taking risks. The U.S. American mother encourages individuality with the resolution of going back out there and trying again.

Having grown up in the U.S. I often heard, “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.” The U.S. American child is rewarded for taking risks, learning through mistakes and gaining independence at an early age. The French child is rewarded for being cautious, avoiding mistakes and staying close to the group.

Such values carry over into the workplace where I have heard more than one French person complain about U.S. American’s tendency to act too quickly. “If only they would take the time to do it right the first time, we wouldn’t have to spend all of this time correcting their mistakes.” The U.S. American sees those mistakes as natural parts of the process that encourage innovation, creative thinking and responsive problem solving. Meanwhile, the U.S. American complains that when working with their French colleagues, there is too much time spent talking and not enough time acting.

In the end they both get to the same place at the same time, they just do it differently. So who is right and who is wrong? Global Leaders recognize and embrace such differences as natural parts of a person’s upbringing and how we learn culture. They suspend judgment in order to recognize, adapt and leverage the similarities and differences into strengths not weaknesses. Consider a global team that has planners and risk takers and imagine the possibilities.


Happy Chinese New Year of the Ram

Katherine and the crew at Invisible Culture wish you happiness and prosperity in the New Year.

chinese new year1

If you are in NYC, Asia Society has special events this weekend and International Business Times has some suggestions on best places to eat in NYC. Of course, there is always the parade on Sunday in Chinatown just to name a few ways to get involved.

If you are fortunate enough to be invited to someone’s home, remember to avoid gifts in white or anything in quantities of four as they are both associated with death. Brand new crisp money in even numbers is usually given (especially to children at parties) in a traditional red envelope called a hóng bao (红包) and gifts are always given and received with two hands. Mandarins abound.

You can also visit‘s page for a bit more insight into this widely celebrated holiday.


Gong Xi Fa Cai  (Mandarin) and Gong Hey Fat Choy (Cantonese)


The Invisible Culture of Privacy

The Invisible Culture of Privacy


Recently a woman from Singapore moved to the U.S. to work at a Fortune 500 company and was invited to her boss’ house for dinner. They were having a lovely time until the boss did something that made this woman totally uncomfortable. She gave her guests their drinks and then offered them a house tour. The Singaporean woman wasn’t used to this, but thought, “OK, why not.” It wasn’t until the boss was showing everyone the layout of the upstairs that the new arrival felt that things had gone too far. “She is my boss, why is she showing me where she sleeps?! It was totally weird.”

The American house tour has shocked endless newcomers to our shores over the years. I have heard similar comments from people from a variety of other cultures including Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and France. “Why do they show me where they carry on their private lives?” Or, “Why are they showing me the bathroom!”

In the U.S. people may expect to be given a tour and many U.S. Americans are happy to oblige since they take pride in their homes and feel it extends the relationship further. A house tour is an invitation to get to know someone better, a way to show people something beyond the sterility of work and ultimately a way to connect a little bit more deeply. Not all U.S. Americans give the house tour, but plenty do and some guests may even expect it.

The flip side is when someone keeps houseguests in the living room or dining area their U.S. counterparts may feel like the host isn’t being welcoming. A Dutch national once responded to that by saying, “Not welcoming! I’ve invited them into my home. How much more welcoming could I be when really in the end business meals should be kept to restaurants and public spaces.”

The notion of privacy affects many aspects of how we relate to one another from what parts of our lives we share to how we make new friends. It can affect the extent to which we discuss certain things with people with whom we work to how much we think our parents should know or be involved with our personal lives. This is particularly tricky for a newcomer since establishing new relationships and creating a community is typically on the top of the list of personal objectives, but how to go about that isn’t always clear.

I remember meeting a woman from Norway once who said she thought it was bizarre that U.S. Americans strike up conversations with complete strangers. Despite being taught at a young age to not speak to strangers, I recalled the time I returned to New York from Shanghai and someone struck up a conversation with me while waiting on line at a deli. I can’t remember what she said, but I remember thinking it was odd that she was talking to me.

My original self, before having moved abroad, wouldn’t have thought twice about someone making a small commentary about something we were both experiencing. In my U.S. culture, physical proximity is enough for someone to strike up conversation, but that in some cultures, like Norway, formal introductions, common purpose or shared membership to a group are minimum requirements for people to not think that you are completely crazy for talking to them.

The notion of how, when, and with whom it is appropriate to strike up a conversation is another layer of the Invisible Culture of Privacy that only becomes apparent to people when that moment of surprise, discomfort or bewilderment arises. One woman said she thought an American man was being a pervert, by the mere fact that he was talking her, “for no reason.” I remember another woman commenting at how strange she thought it was that a U.S. American neighbor could show up unannounced at her doorstep with an Apple Pie.

This is when understanding Invisible Culture comes in handy. Digging beyond visible surface behaviors can reveal when and how to approach people in a new culture, how much is appropriate to share or what to expect from your relationships. More importantly it provides tools for accurately evaluating tings that people do instead of jumping to conclusions about why they do it.

The world renown intercultural researcher Fons Trompenaars conducts research that identifies the extent to which it is culturally appropriate for there to be overlap between public and private life. He refers to these cultures as either Specific or Diffuse. Keeping in mind no one culture is completely one or the other, but he has revealed tendencies and preferences that run along national cultural lines.

In a Specific culture there is less overlap between public and private life. Work relationships are kept at work and personal relationships are maintained separately. Hedges grow high between neighbors and families tend to be less probing or actively involved in the life decisions of their young adult members.

In a Diffuse culture, all bets are off. Parents and aunts and uncles all tend to feel that a young adult’s activities are fair fodder for family discussion, neighbors can knock on your door to welcome you to the neighborhood and work relationships may involved more intimate conversations about personal activities over the weekend,  knowledge about your family make-up or your ideas about non-work related issues.

Whether or not someone is comfortable showing people their homes or talking about your weekend has less to do with whether or not they are willing to deepen a relationship and more to do with what cultural norms are adopted from a very young age. So the next time you are crossing cultures and someone shows you their toilet or tells you they are nervous about meeting their in-laws they may not be trying to be inappropriate, but instead just acting in a way that is normal from where they come.

Nonetheless, this American still believes bedrooms and toilets are off limits to employees!


The Invisible Culture of Gifts

The Invisible Culture of Gifts


The first time I ever went to Japan and a friend, Yoshi, gave my Australian friend, Vanessa, a gift. Vanessa responded with a big smile, a big hug and then immediately proceeded to open the gift. Yoshi’s face contorted; her body stiffened and her face managed to squeeze out an awkward smile.  Her silence screamed, “This is uncomfortable!”

Japanese communication styles are not predisposed to let someone know they have just offended. As a result, I doubt Vanessa knew her misstep. With all of the good intentions around giving and receiving there are still a handful of beliefs that surround both practices that may not be obvious to either the giver or receiver. What better topic to touch upon with the holidays right around the corner than giving across cultures.

One thing to keep in mind when giving gifts is that in some cultures, like Japan where gift giving is ubiquitous, you don’t open the gift in front of the giver. In others, like Australia, you absolutely do. In one culture, opening a gift can signify appreciation and celebration, while not opening it can seem unappreciative or dismissive. In another culture, opening it can seem a bit greedy or crude, while not opening it has an air of control and reserve which are valued.

Another aspect of gift giving that needs consideration is not just how you give, but what you give. In China, for example, scissor or knives signify cutting off a relationship and clocks and watches suggests the counting down of time, so are best avoided. That is not to say that if someone close to you wants to give a nice watch that people don’t do that, it is just a belief of which to be aware.

I had a Swiss colleague tell me Americans are thoughtless gift-givers. She said she had a closet filled with gifts that had nothing to do with who she was and that came from people that she didn’t really know very well. In her culture, she learned that you gift gifts to people in your intimate circle and you think very carefully about what to give a person based on their interests, likes and dislikes. Needless to say she didn’t grow up hearing, “It’s not the gift that matters, it’s the thought that counts.”

Some say in France it is best not to bring a bottle of wine to a dinner expecting it to be opened because the host will most likely have chosen their wine carefully to match the food and company. That being said, I have a friend who I visit regularly to whom I frequently bring a special bottle of wine and we revolve the meal and company around the wine. So no matter what you hear about gift giving when it comes to culture it is always best to remember, tools not rule – context is king.

A few context-based considerations include relationship, level of intimacy, age, appropriateness of expense and occasion. Also, employees have expressed frustration at not being able to give gifts due to their company policy in cultures that are very giving oriented. In these cases it is always best to follow policy and compensate with time and meals.

Back to Japan, when Vanessa opened the gift, it was a melon. Yes, it was a piece of fruit wrapped in the most beautiful box and paper that we had ever seen. Now it was Vanessa’s turn to contort her face. Her flashy smile went a bit crooked as her eyebrows rose in surprise. For the first time she was at a loss for words. She graciously thanked Yoshi who was standing there with a very similar expression.

Later while Vanessa and I were in the posh department store called Takashimaya we passed a bunch of melons that cost $75 each (and that was back in 1991)! They were wrapped in a similar fashion to the one that Yoshi had given her and it dawned on us that this piece of melon was a luxurious and expensive gift by all of our standards. Gifts mean a lot of things to different people, but in this case Yoshi had not only been giving her a piece of fruit, but was also trying to say how much she valued Vanessa.

May your holiday season be filled with the gift of cultural understanding and moments to reflect on suspending judgments about what is really going on beneath the surface.


Influencing Business through Trust Internationally

The Invisible Culture of Trust


What makes you trust a person. Is it their handshake? The way they look? Maybe it is the way you were introduced. Chances are you don’t even know what your criteria are for trusting a person, but one thing is for sure – what causes people to trust in one culture could be exactly what causes someone to not trust you in another.

I’ll never forget the first story I heard that illustrated this point. It involved a Japanese car manufacturer who was looking for a parts supplier. The Japanese group had narrowed it down to a U.S. American supplier and a Brazilian one. The U.S. Americans had a superior product at a lower cost, but instead the Japanese group opted for the Brazilian proposal. When the well-prepared U.S. Americans learned this, they were stumped.

Trust is obviously an important part of doing business in all countries, but how it manifests itself through behavior can be completely different. The shared value (Invisible Culture) is trust. The way to establish trust (Visible Culture) varies. For the Chinese it is through Guanxi, for the Germans it is through objectivity and timeliness, for U.S. Americans it may be through speed, and through the French it may be through a shared history.

As far as the above abridged story, in short, the Japanese come from a relationship oriented culture – without the relationship the task won’t get done. As a result, business interactions start with getting to know one another, whether it be through a meal or spending time during the first meeting talking about anything but business. See figure 1.

U.S. Americans come from a task-oriented culture – getting right down to business shows professionalism and respect for time. By starting with the task they can determine whether or not it makes sense to spend time on socializing. See figure 2. To U.S. Americans business socializing still maintains a certain distance, whereas in some cultures, they won’t know if they can trust you until you have showed your true self.

Ways to do that include making yourself vulnerable through drinking together, letting your guard down or picking up that mike in karaoke. It may seem trivial, but in fact it is sometimes the difference between the deal getting done or not.


This is a simplification of a complex subject since there are many different factors involved in how different cultures establish trust. Communication styles, aversion to risk, humor, timing, introductions and cognitive styles can all play a role, but increased awareness about the Task – Relationship dynamic is a good concept to start with if you are going to a new place.

Whether it be a new country or a different region within your own country, the first step is to identify your preferred style, the second is to identify the style of your receiving culture and the third is to adapt to the extent that it doesn’t change your own core values. If you value getting the job done quickly, then sometimes it is best to slow down – you’ll get there faster.